One of the brightest stars of the American economic recovery and boom (if you can call the past couple of years a boom) is the American labor market.
Here’s a look at 5 charts on how the American labor market did in 2015 and where it might be heading in 2016.
#1: Jobs Created
The headline employment measure is the number of jobs created. The following graphic has this view.
Interestingly, compared to what we’ve seen this century, 2015 is a fairly strong year. With the exception of employment growth in 2014, the 2.308 million jobs created in 2015 place this year in second place behind 2014’s 2.787 million through the first 11 months of the year. Certainly, the economy has come a long way from the terrible 2008/2009 recession years.
The strength in the jobs market in 2014 and 2015 presents some concern for the 2016 outlook. One generally safe observation is worth noting. Prior to the 2008 and 2009 global financial recession, American job growth began decelerating two years before the recession occurred. Job growth peaked in 2005 at 2.5 million. In 2006, job growth dropped to 2.1 million, and then further decelerated to 1.1 million net new jobs in 2007. Macroeconomic conditions became unhinged in 2008, with net job destruction taking over. The total number of jobs lost in 2008 was 3.6 million.
With this as the background, job growth in 2016 is likely to come in somewhere around 1.5 million, which would be a hefty drop from the 2014/2015 experience, although still positive, averaging 125K net new jobs per month.
#2: Wage Growth
Next in importance to job creation is wage growth. Here’s a look at American wage growth on a year-over-year basis.
The current 2% figure is incredibly weak after 6 years of recovery and boom. The weakness is probably going to fade somewhat in 2016, with the upward drift becoming somewhat strong. Overall wage growth may accelerate to somewhere around 2.5% to 3.0% by the end of 2016.
#3: Labor Force Participation
The third indicative labor market measure to watch in 2016 is the Labor Force Participation Rate. In the past couple of months, the rate has ticked up marginally, from 62.4% in September to 62.5% in November (the most recent figure). With job growth likely to decelerate further in 2016, Labor Force Participation is likely to only marginally move from where it is right now, perhaps reaching 63% by the end of 2016. That’s a big perhaps.
#4: The Unemployment Rate
Perhaps the most well-known labor market indicator to watch, and number 4 on our list, is the 2016 Unemployment Rate.
The current unemployment rate, 5%, is strong enough for the Federal Reserve to start raising rates. During the technology bubble of the late 90s/early 2000s, the unemployment rate bottomed out at around 3.8%. In the housing boom of the mid-2000s, the unemployment rate bottomed at 4.4% in 2007. Both suggest that there’s a good deal of improvement in the unemployment picture before any concern of an overheating economy is warranted.
In 2016, the unemployment rate is likely to continue to drop, perhaps to around 4.5%.
#5: The Industry Picture
The last point here is the industry makeup of job growth. In 2015 (through 11 months), Education & Health and Professional & Business Services accounted for almost half of all job growth. This dominance can’t go on forever.
Part of the reason job growth is likely to slow in 2016 is due to some saturation in employment growth in these two sectors. Teachers, nurses, and doctors can’t continue to grow faster than the populations they serve for too long. In 2016, it will be interesting to see how strong retail employment grows, as well as finance and natural resources.
Overall, how the many facets of the American labor market will perform throughout 2016 will be something worth watching. Of the many intriguing story lines, perhaps the five most interesting are net job creation, wage growth, labor force participation, the unemployment picture, and the industry makeup of job growth. Each factor provides a glimpse at the evolving American labor picture.